Thomson Reuters Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

General Principles

Our aim
Thomson Reuters strives to ensure that its journal publishing programme meets the highest ethical and professional standards and that it satisfies customer requirements for objective and reliable information.

Best practice
This document sets out the best practice standards which we apply and which we require our editors, authors and peer reviewers to follow.

Diversity and inclusion
We are committed to promoting diversity and inclusion, and do not discriminate against editors, authors or peer reviewers on the basis of any personal characteristics or identity, such as race, sex, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, beliefs or disability. We encourage quality submissions from academics and practitioners with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints.

Thomson Reuters journals do not charge authors any fees for processing manuscripts or publishing articles.

Editors and editorial boards
Our journal editors and editorial board members are all experts in their areas of research and/or practice. The product information for each journal on our website should list their names and organisations.

Contact information
The product information for each journal on our website should provide editorial contact details for the publication.

Editorial standards

Thomson Reuters supports freedom of expression, but all language used in Thomson Reuters journals should be appropriate to the context and should avoid undue provocation or criticism. It must not contain anything obscene, indecent, objectionable, libellous, or in breach of the Official Secrets Acts, or be prejudiced or discriminatory on grounds of race, sex, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, belief, or mental or physical disability.

Content should be referenced as fully as possible, using credible, accessible authorities and sources, and underlying data should be represented accurately in the article.

Extracted material
Any extracted material must be reproduced accurately, clearly delineated from the main text and fully referenced. In relevant cases, permission to reproduce such material must be obtained from the copyright owner.

Editor responsibilities

Own work
Editors should ensure that content which they have authored provides an informed and balanced viewpoint.

Content selection
Editors should select content from contributors objectively, based on the quality of research and writing and likely interest to readers of the journal in question, and not with a view to promoting a specific point of view or interest. A submission that challenges content previously published in the journal should be given particular consideration for publication.

Editors should not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding authors, reviewers, other editorial team members for the journal and Thomson Reuters.

Authorised use of submissions
Editors should not make any use of material disclosed in a submitted manuscript, except for publication in the relevant journal, unless they have the express permission of the authors.

Conflict of interests
Any relevant conflict of interests of which an editor is aware should be disclosed to readers.

Right of reply
Editors should allow commentators a right of reply to content published in a journal provided their comment is of an appropriate standard and supported by evidence.

Material error
If a published paper is found to contain any material error, the editor of the journal is responsible for correcting the record clearly and promptly.

Research misconduct
If an editor suspects research misconduct, they should notify Thomson Reuters in confidence.

Author responsibilities

Original work
All articles must be the original work of the authors.

Not published or to be published elsewhere
Articles (or substantial sections of articles) must not have been published, or be in the process of being published, or be under consideration for publication, in another journal, book or other publication, in any format, whether print or digital, or on any website.

Named authors
All authors named as such in an article must have contributed significantly to the planning and/or execution of the research and/or drafting of the article. The author submitting the manuscript should ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the article and agreed to its submission for publication.

Other contributors
Those who have made more minor contributions to the article should be acknowledged in a footnote or other suitable manner.

Financial support
Authors must make it clear to the editor of the journal if any financial support has been provided from any source for the research.

Conflict of interests
Authors must declare to the editor of the journal any relevant conflict of interests, whether personal, financial, commercial, political, academic, professional or other.

Peer review process
Where a title has a peer review process, authors must participate in that process.

Response to queries
Authors must respond to legitimate queries from any source following publication, including any questions relating to publishing ethics.

Error discovered by author
Where an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their own published work, they should inform the editor of the journal promptly.

Error identified by any party
Where an error is identified by any party, either before or after publication, authors must cooperate in providing a retraction or correction of the error.

Peer review process

Description of process
Where a journal has a peer review process for articles, this should be indicated in the information for the title on our website, with a clear description of the type of peer review process used.

Best practice guidelines
Reviewers should familiarise themselves with and follow relevant best practice guidelines on peer review. We recommend that they refer to COPE’s Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers.

Conflict of interests
Reviewers should have no conflict of interests (personal, financial, commercial, political, academic, professional or other) in relation to the content being reviewed.

Reviewers should treat the review process as confidential, and the submitted manuscript should not be retained or copied.

Authorised use of review content
Reviewers should not make any use of the content they are reviewing unless they have the express permission of the authors.

Reviewers should provide a prompt report, be objective and courteous, and express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Relevant published work
Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors.

Research misconduct
If a reviewer suspects research misconduct, they should notify the editor of the journal in confidence.

Research misconduct

What is included
Research misconduct includes, but is not limited to, plagiarism, citation manipulation and data falsification or fabrication. Such misconduct may be intentional, reckless or negligent.

Our standards
Thomson Reuters and its editors do not tolerate research misconduct or knowingly allow such misconduct to take place.

Our responsibilities
Both Thomson Reuters and its editors shall take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred.

Suspected research misconduct
If any person suspects research misconduct, it should be referred in confidence to Thomson Reuters through the editorial contact named in the product information for the journal on our website, or to the editor of the journal.

Our response
In any case where Thomson Reuters or any of its editors is made aware of any allegation of research misconduct, it will be investigated. Submissions where plagiarism is suspected may be checked through plagiarism checking tools. Where possible, COPE guidelines will be followed, and instances of suspected misconduct may be escalated to Thomson Reuters’ Legal team.

Justified allegations
If the allegation is justified, appropriate action will be taken. If the article or submission has not yet published, this may involve its rejection or correction. If it has published, it may involve publication of a clarification, correction, retraction and/or apology.


Copyright in the content (except for articles) and in the typography and design of all Thomson Reuters journals belongs to Thomson Reuters.

Content of articles
The content of articles submitted for publication in any journal remains the copyright of the author(s) of the article, who will be named as the author(s) of the article in all formats in which it is published. Such author(s) grant to Thomson Reuters, worldwide and in all formats, publishing rights and subsidiary rights.


Paid subscription
The content of Thomson Reuters journals is available by annual paid subscription, in print format, or on ProView (the Thomson Reuters eBook platform), or online as part of the Westlaw UK service.

Open Access Policy
The Open Access policy for articles published in our journals is set out on the Thomson Reuters website:

Any request to license content from any Thomson Reuters journal should be submitted in the first instance to the editorial contact named in the product information for the journal on our website. All such requests will be considered on an individual basis.


Westlaw UK
In the event that a journal ceases to be published, Thomson Reuters will retain an archive of the published issues on the Westlaw UK platform.

Offline archive
A digital archive is also maintained offline by Thomson Reuters.

Legal deposit libraries
Print issues of all journals are deposited with the UK legal deposit libraries.


March 2022